1. While theres disagreement over its origins, the caste system _______ in a legal treatisecalledManusmriti, dating from about 1,000 B.C.
A. had been formalized B. was formalized C. has been formalized D. is formalized
2. Virtual classrooms ______ towards promoting the acquisition of knowledge as a lifelong endeavor, which occurs through global collaboration.
A. will be geared B. will gear C. is geared D. gear
3. His responsibilities ________ welcoming visiting dignitaries fromforeign countries.
A. included B. were included C. will be including D. had been included
4. Though most fairy tales have happy endings, the stories usually deal with frightening situations - children ______ in the forest, terrifying giants, cruel stepmothers.
A. are abandoned B. abandoned C. will abandon D. had abandoned
5. The party _______ when she left.
A. had no sooner started B. had hardly been started C. had hardly started D. had no sooner been started